Simple Telephone

So friends, today we will make a simple telephone and learn something about sound. 
Accessories: 2 Match boxes, 2-3 meter medium thickness thread, 2 match stick.

Step 1: Make a hole in center of an open match box. .
Step 2: Tied a used match stick using thread and pass the other end through the hole of paper cup.
Step 3: pass other end of a thread into another open match box and tied it with another used match stick over there.

Application: It’s a simple telephone model. You can play it with your friend.

Advance version: We will use cylindrical metal box instead of paper cup and thin copper wire instead of thread. We can avoid noise and have better voice quality. Why better voice quality? Metal has high thermal and electrical conductivities. A copper cable provides better elasticity also when stretched at both end, compare to a thread.

Theory: Now let’s know some theory, how it works? We know, that sound needs an elastic medium to propagate. Air is such medium, in gas form. Here the thread and copper wire is such medium in solid form. The medium vibrates along with sound waves.

Limitations: Of course, it works point to point, for you and your friend. It is not for long distance call, as the wave signal travelling in thread or copper wire is weakens.
Future Scope:  The gramophone/phonograph has a metal cone, which acts as amplifier. May be, we can use that instead of paper cup cylinder. 
Why astronauts use cordless phones to talk, even they are standing just nearby?
Why we can hear sound from conch shell (SHANKH)?
Why we cannot hear sound from empty conch shell in sound-proof cabin?
How can you talk across a glass wall, without using sound?
Do you know answers? Yes? Immediately write in comments section. No? Wait for next episode.
We will re-visit the telephone again,sometime later. Our next telephone will be wireless. No thread, no copper cable, yet simple. Yes, you can make it and use it. We will learn a new scientific theory behind our wireless telephone.
So stay tune to make science learning as fun, to this blog E-Science Center.


E-Science Center

When we talk about knowledge or Education, what exactly we want out of it? Let’s just understand first what is knowledge means? What is an education means? How one can become Innovative? What creativity means? How we can apply science in an innovative ways?

Knowledge is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject; (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information; or (iii) be absolutely certain or sure about something.

Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.

Innovation:  Innovation comes from Latin innovatus, pp. of innovare “to renew or change,” from in- “into” + novus “new”.

The central meaning of innovation thus relates to renewal or improvement. Novelty is just a consequence of improvement. For this improvement to take place it is necessary for people to change the way they make decisions, they must choose to do things differently, make choices outside of their norm. Schumpeter c.s. (~1930) seems to have stated that innovation changes the values onto which the system is based.

Those who are directly responsible for application of inventions are often called pioneers in their field.

Creativity: Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new (a product, a solution, a work of art etc.) Creativity and creative acts are therefore studied across several disciplines – psychology, cognitive science, education, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), technology, theology, sociology, linguistics, business studies, and economics. As a result, there is a multitude of definitions and approaches.

 Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.